1. - INTRODUCTION TO FIELD MAPPING
Aims and scopes of the field mapping: practical-economic and research purposes, basic geological mapping. The Survey of the Carta Geologica d’Italia and the CARG Program.
2. - RECALL OF BASIC GEOLOGICAL l.s. NOTIONS
Expeditious criteria of rocks classification for the most common lithotypes.
The main types of stratigraphic Units and their rank. The concept of UBSU and their filed of application.
Analysis of the main sedimentary (in carbonatic and terrigenous rocks) and tectonic structures (meso-and Macro-schopic).
Recognition of the widespread and useful mesozoic-tertiary micro- and macro-fossils of frequent use in the field practice in the Tethyan-Apenninic domain
3. - The preparatory phases of a geological mapping project
collection of previous surface an subsurface data (from literature, technical reports, etc.); bibliographic research, organization of the fieldbook.Elaboration of the "preliminary Legend" of the stratigraphic units.
Analysis of the various types of cartographic bases and criteria to choise the more suitable one for the project.
Preliminary photo-geological analysis of the study area.
4. - FIELD TECHNIQUES
4.1. - Fundamentals
Expeditious methodologies of orientation and for topographic positioning of the outcrops using the geological compass; hints on the use of GPS and of GPS-aided digital mapping systems.
The Geological Compass as a tool for structural geological survey: measurement of linear and planar structures (bedding, cross-bedding, fault planes and associated kinematic indicators, cleavages, joints, hinges and axial planes of folds etc.).
Survey, analysis and mapping of outcrops and of different types of boundaries within the rock volumes; their description and cartographic representation. Mapping outcrops from panoramic view
Way-up criteria in different sedimentary rock types and in folded and cleaved slates and argillites. Collection of data on tractive structures; determination of paleocurrents, statistical elaboration of data and cartographic representation.
Drawing the Field Map and progressive updating of the legend.
Methods aimed at expeditious study of stratigraphic succession: sections measurement and logging; collection of samples for biostratigraphic and petrographic purposes.
Drawing the scheme of stratigraphic relationships between the surveyed units
4.2. - Mapping Techiniques in the different geological contexts
Mapping criteria for: carbonate platform and margin, slope, pelagic basin, turbiditic systems and siliciclastic shelf.
Stratigraphy of type-successions of central Apennins (Umbria-Marche and Latium-Abruzzo domain) at the light of the recent CARG projects.
Basic criteria for the geological mapping and structural analysis in highly deformed areas (Fold and Thrust belts and metamorphic cores).
Representation of structural dataset through stereoplots.
5. - TECHNIQUES OF DATA INTERPOLATION AND STRATIGRAPHIC BOUNDARY RECONSTRUCTION
5.1.Stratimetric and geometric methods for tracing geologica boundaries (stratigraphic and tectonic); structure contours and slope triangle; determining the attitude of a planar surface from the elevation of three not aligned points; determining the attitude of a planar surface from two apparent dip; assessment of a bed-depth knowing its attitude;
evaluating the attitude of a stratigraphic boundary on the basis of its surface trace
5.2. - Stereonet reconstructions useful for geological Survey
Representation and determination of attitudes using the stereonet; rotation of linear and planar features. Apparent and real attitudes; simple cases of palinspastic restorations to determine the attitudes of paleocurrents and of syn-sedimentary faults before tectonic tilting.
5.3. Synthesis of data
Interpretation and synthesis of field data to draw the final geological map, geological sections, stratigraphic columns and other tables. Integration of field data with subsurface data and laboratory analysis;
Elaboration of the final release of the Legend