Principles of toxicology: different areas of toxicology, classification of toxic agents and classification of toxic effects.
Toxicokinetics: mechanisms of xenobiotic transport across biological membranes; absorption, distribution, biotransformation and/or bioactivation and excretion of a xenobiotic; major routes and sites of exposure, resulting toxic effects and potential selective prevention interventions; bioavailability¸storage of xenobiotics in tissues; volume of distribution; Blood–Brain Barrier; Passage of Toxicants Across the Placenta.
Toxicodynamics: mechanisms of toxicity (receptor-mediated, interactions with target molecules, reactive oxygen or nitrogen species.); plasma half-life;
Risk assessment: exposure assessment, dose-response assessment (NOAEL, LOAEL), threshold dose, threshold limit values, threshold and nonthreshold effects, extrapolation of animal test data to human exposure (safe human dose)
Main factors influencing toxicity (dose, sex, age, route of exposure, chemical composition and chemical mixture .).
Chemical carcinogenesis, genotoxic carcinogens, developmental and reproductive toxicity, toxicology of nanoparticles, endocrine disruptors.
Descriptive animal toxicity testing: acute, subacute and chronic toxicity.