describe the organization of cells;
- illustrating the structure of biological membranes and cell-environment interactions;
- describe the processes of mitosis, meiosis, duration of the phases and regulation of the cell cycle; Energy and metabolism - ATP, energy currency of the cell - The transfer of energy in redox rations - The enzymes - The processes of aerobiosis and cellular anaerobiosis: - The redox reaction - The four stages of aerobic respiration - Anaerobic respiration and fermentation
- within the structure of the Nucleic Acids, to illustrate the general characteristics of the DNA. Describe the flow of genetic information from one cell generation to another and describe DNA replication and repair. Describe the various levels of DNA organization in the cell. To illustrate the organization of the genome and of the extracellular DNA;
- to illustrate the general characteristics of the RNA, knowing how to describe the flow of information within the cell, demonstrating that it understood the mechanisms of Transcription, of the Genetic Code, of the Protein Synthesis;
- regulation of Gene Expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
- asexual and sexual reproduction. Spermatogenesis. Oogenesis. Fertilization